Electricity
Posted in Learning

What is Electricity?

Electrical Principles: What is Electricity?#electricity #electrons #electrones #electromagnets #electromagnetism #magnets #starter #starting #wave #waveform #alternator #phase #phases #windings #winding #connections…

Posted in ARDUINO Components Learning

Pulse Width Modulation

What is Pulse-width Modulation? Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a fancy term for describing a type of digital signal. Pulse…

Posted in Schematic

Touchless capacitive switch

This post describes a circuit that has a capacitive input sensor and a switching transistor at the output PNP. When…

White LED Lamp
Posted in Schematic

White LED Lamp

Nowadays you can buy white LEDs, which emit quite a bit oflight. They are so bright that you shouldn’t look…

The Basics of Power Conversion and the New Film Capacitors
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The Basics of Power Conversion and the New Film Capacitors

As electronic circuits evolve and advance, the demand for stable components capable of handling more power in extreme environments increases….

Shutting Down Safely with Capacitors
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Shutting Down Safely with Capacitors

The primary job of a capacitor is to store charge and later to release that charge for another part of…

Decibels
Posted in Learning

Decibels

The decibel is the base-10 logarithm ratio used to express an increase or decrease in power, voltage, or current in…

Speed checker
Posted in Components Schematic

Speed checker

While driving on highways, motorists should not exceed the maximum speed limitpermitted for their vehicles. However, accidents keep occurring due…

Band Stop Filter
Posted in Learning

Band Stop Filter

A band Stop Filter known also as a Notch Filter, blocks and rejects frequencies that lie between its two cut-off…

State Variable Filter
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State Variable Filter

The state variable filter is a type of multiple-feedback filter circuit that can produce all three filter responses, Low Pass,…

Second Order Filters
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Second Order Filters

Second Order (or two-pole) Filters consist of two RC filter sections connected together to provide a -40dB/decade roll-off rate. Second…

Butterworth Filter Design
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Butterworth Filter Design

In the previous filter tutorials we looked at simple first-order type low and high pass filters that contain only one…

Active Band Pass Filter
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Active Band Pass Filter

The principal characteristic of a Band Pass Filter or any filter for that matter is its ability to pass frequencies…

Active High Pass Filter
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Active High Pass Filter

An Active High Pass Filter can be created by combining a passive RC filter network with an operational amplifier to…

Active Low Pass Filter
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Active Low Pass Filter

By combining a basic RC Low Pass Filter circuit with an operational amplifier we can create an Active Low Pass…

Passive Band Pass Filter
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Passive Band Pass Filter

Passive Band Pass Filters can be made by connecting together a low pass filter with a high pass filter. Band…

Passive High Pass Filter
Posted in Learning

Passive High Pass Filter

A High Pass Filter is the exact opposite to the low pass filter circuit as the two components have been…

Passive Low Pass Filter
Posted in Learning

Passive Low Pass Filter

A Low Pass Filter is a circuit that can be designed to modify, reshape or reject all unwanted high frequencies…

Capacitive Reactance
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Capacitive Reactance

Capacitive Reactance is the complex impedance of a capacitor who’s value changes with respect to the applied frequency. In the…

Capacitor Characteristics
Posted in Components Learning

Capacitor Characteristics

The characteristics of a capacitors define its temperature, voltage rating and capacitance range as well as its use in a…

Difference between motor and generator
Posted in Learning

Difference between motor and generator

Generator and Motor are two distinct gadgets with various applications. A generator is a more extensive term used to characterize…

Solar Power Plant
Posted in Learning

Solar Power Plant – Main Components, Working, Advantages, and Disadvantages

Knowing the way that petroleum products are not going to keep going forever, the sun-oriented power age is by all…

Difference Between Contactor and Relay
Posted in Learning

Difference Between Contactor and Relay

What Makes Contactors Different from Relays? The course book definitions are sufficiently comparable it doesn’t generally encourage us. Both play…

Difference Between MCB MCCB
Posted in Learning

The Difference Between MCB & MCCB

The Difference Between MCB & MCCB? 1- Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)  :                    …

Air circuit breaker
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Air Circuit Breaker (ACB)

Air Circuit Breaker This circuit breaker will work noticeably all around; the extinguishing medium is an Arc at the climatic…

Phase Splitter
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Phase Splitter

A phase splitter circuit produces two output signals that are equal in amplitude but opposite in phase from each other…

Frequency Response
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Frequency Response

Frequency Response of an amplifier or filter shows how the gain of the output responds to input signals at different…

Amplifier Classes
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Amplifier Classes

Amplifiers are classified into classes according to their construction and operating characteristics. Not all amplifiers are the same and there…

Class AB Amplifier
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Class AB Amplifier

Class AB amplifier output stage combines the advantages of the Class A amplifier and the Class B amplifier producing a…

Crossover Distortion in Amplifiers
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Crossover Distortion in Amplifiers

Crossover Distortion is a common feature of Class-B amplifiers where the non-linearities of the two switching transistors do not vary…

Class B Amplifier
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Class B Amplifier

Class-B Amplifiers use two or more transistors biased in such a way so that each transistor only conducts during one…

Class A Amplifier
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Class A Amplifier

Common emitter amplifiers are the most commonly used type of amplifier as they can have a very large voltage gain….

Amplifier Distortion
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Amplifier Distortion

Amplifier Distortion can take on many forms such as Amplitude, Frequency and Phase Distortion due to Clipping. For a signal…

Source JFET Amplifier
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Source JFET Amplifier

Common Source JFET Amplifier uses junction field effect transistors as its main active device offering high input impedance characteristics. Transistor…

Emitter Amplifier
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Emitter Amplifier

The most common amplifier configuration for an NPN transistor is that of the Common Emitter Amplifier circuit. In the previous…

Amplifier
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Amplifier

An amplifier is an electronic device or circuit which is used to increase the magnitude of the signal applied to…

Transformer Voltage Regulation
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Transformer Voltage Regulation

Transformer voltage regulation is the ratio or percentage value by which a transformers output terminal voltage varies either up or…

Audio Transformer
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Audio Transformer

Audio Transformers are designed for use in audio amplifier applications for coupling and impedance matching of amplifiers and speakers. As…

Three Phase Transformer
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Three Phase Transformers

Three-phase Transformers are the backbone of electrical power distribution whether Delta or Star connected windings. Thus far we have looked…

Autotransformer
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Autotransformer

The primary and secondary windings of an Autotransformer are linked together both electrically and magnetically reducing the cost over conventional…

Multiple Winding Transformers
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Multiple Winding Transformers

Multiple Winding Transformers can have two or more primary or secondary winding allowing for different combinations of voltages and currents….

Transformer
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Transformer

Transformers are electrical devices consisting of two or more coils of wire used to transfer electrical energy by means of…

Resistance of a Coil
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Resistance of a Coil

All coils, inductors, chokes and transformers create a magnetic field around themselves consist of an Inductance in series with a…

Inductive Reactance
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Inductive Reactance

Inductive Reactance of a coil depends on the frequency of the applied voltage as reactance is directly proportional to frequency….

Inductance of a Coil
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Inductance of a Coil

Inductance is the name given to the property of a component that opposes the change of current flowing through it…

Mutual Inductance
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Mutual Inductance

Mutual Inductance is the interaction of one coils magnetic field on another coil as it induces a voltage in the…

Inductors in Parallel
Posted in Components Learning

Inductors in Parallel

Inductors are said to be connected together in Parallel when both of their terminals are respectively connected to each terminal…

Inductors in Series
Posted in Components Learning

Inductors in Series

Inductors can be connected together in a series connection when the are daisy chained together sharing a common electrical current….

Inductor
Posted in Components Learning

Inductor

An Inductor is a passive electrical component consisting of a coil of wire which is designed to take advantage of…

Diode Clipper also known as a Diode Limiter
Posted in Learning Schematic

Diode Limiter

The Diode Clipper, also known as a Diode Limiter, is a wave shaping circuit that takes an input waveform and…

LED
Posted in Components Learning

LED

Light Emitting Diodes or simply LED´s, are among the most widely used of all the different types of semiconductor diodes…

Zener Diode
Posted in Components Learning

Zener Diode

A Semiconductor Diode blocks current in the reverse direction, but will suffer from premature breakdown or damage if the reverse…

Full Wave Rectifier
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Full Wave Rectifier

Power Diodes can be connected together to form a full wave rectifier that convert AC voltage into pulsating DC voltage…

Arduino blinking LED
Posted in ARDUINO Learning

Make a LED blink using Arduino

EDs (Light-emitting diode) can be found in many colors and sizes. This example shows the simplest thing you can do with…

Arduino RGB LED
Posted in ARDUINO Learning

Arduino controlled RGB LED

An RGB LED has 4 pins, one for each color (Red, Green, Blue) and a common cathode. It has three…