# Category: Learning

Learning materials about electronics.

### PN Junction

A PN-junction is formed when an N-type material is fused together with a P-type material creating a semiconductor diode. In…

### Semiconductor

If resistors are the most basic passive component in electrical or electronic circuits, then we have to consider the Signal…

### Varistor

The Varistor is a passive two-terminal solid state semiconductor device that is used to provide protection to electrical and electronic…

### Resistivity

Resistivity of materials is the resistance to the flow of an electric current with some materials resisting the current flow…

### Darlington Transistors

The Darlington Transistor configuration of two bipolar transistors offers increased current switching for a given base current. The Darlington Transistor…

### MOSFET

MOSFET’s operate the same as JFET’s but have a gate terminal that is electrically isolated from the conductive channel. As…

### Transistor as a Switch

Transistor switches can be used to switch a low voltage DC device (e.g. LED’s) ON or OFF by using a…

### PNP Transistor

The PNP Transistor is the exact opposite to the NPN Transistor device we looked at in the previous tutorial. Basically,…

### NPN Transistor

NPN Transistors are three-terminal, three-layer devices that can function as either amplifiers or electronic switches. In the previous tutorial we…

### Bipolar Transistor

The Bipolar Junction Transistor is a semiconductor device which can be used for switching or amplification. In the diode tutorials,…

### Potentiometers

Potentiometers and Rheostats create a change in their resistive value when a connected shaft is physically rotated. Resistors provide a…

### Resistors in AC Circuits

Resistors can also be used in Alternating Current supplies where the voltages, currents, and power being consumed are given in…

### Resistor Power Rating

Electrical Power is absorbed by a resistance as it is the product of voltage and current with some resistances converting…

### Potential Difference

The voltage difference between any two points in a circuit is known as Potential Difference and it is this potential…

### Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistors can be connected together in an unlimited number of series and parallel combinations to form complex resistive circuits. In…

### Resistors in Parallel

Resistors are said to be connected together in parallel when both of their terminals are respectively connected to each terminal…

### Resistors in Series

Resistors are said to be connected in series when they are daisy chained together in a single line resulting in…

### Resistor Colour Code

Resistor Color Coding uses colored bands to easily identify a resistors resistive value and its percentage tolerance. There are many…

### Resistor

Resistors are the most fundamental and commonly used of all the electronic components, to the point where they are almost…

### Electrical Energy and Power

Electrical Energy supplies the power required to produce work or an action within an electrical circuit and is given in…

### Current Dividers

Current Divider circuits have two or more parallel branches for currents to flow through but the voltage is the same…

### Voltage Dividers

Voltage Divider circuits are used to produce different voltage levels from a common voltage source but the current is the…

### Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) is Kirchhoff’s second law that deals with the conservation of energy around a closed circuit path….

### Current Sources

A Current Source is an active circuit element that is capable of supplying a constant current flow to a circuit…

### Voltage Sources

A Voltage Source is a device that generates an exact output voltage which, in theory, does not change regardless of…

### Star Delta Transformation

Star-Delta Transformations and Delta-Star Transformations allow us to convert impedances connected together in a 3-phase configuration from one type of…

### Maximum Power Transfer

Maximum Power Transfer occurs when the resistive value of the load is equal in value to that of the voltage…

### Nortons Theorem

Nortons theorem is an analytical method used to change a complex circuit into a simple equivalent circuit consisting of a…

### Thevenin’s Theorem

Thevenin theorem is an analytical method used to change a complex circuit into a simple equivalent circuit consisting of a…

### Nodal Voltage Analysis

Nodal Voltage Analysis finds the unknown voltage drops around a circuit between different nodes that provide a common connection for…

### Mesh Current Analysis

Mesh Current Analysis is a technique used to find the currents circulating around a loop or mesh with in any…

### Electrical Units of Measure

Electrical Units of Measurement are used to express standard electrical units along with their prefixes when the units are too…

### DC Circuit Theory

The fundamental relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical or electronic circuit is called Ohm’s Law. All materials…

### Ohms Law and Power

The relationship between Voltage, Current, and Resistance in any DC electrical circuit was firstly discovered by the German physicist Georg…

### What is electricity?

Electricity is a process of the transmission of an electrons group from one point to another. That is the definition…

### Kirchhoff’s Current Law

To determine the amount or magnitude of the electrical current flowing around an electrical or electronic circuit, we need to…

### Capacitors

Capacitors are simple passive device that can store an electrical charge on their plates when connected to a voltage source….

### Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law

Kirchhoffs Circuit Laws allow us to solve complex circuit problems by defining a set of basic network laws and theorems…

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